The usages of the bassoon in Baroque era

In 16th century in 1589, We can see the first ensemble which included bassoon withtromboni, cortetti in Malvezzi’s composition and later the first usages of the instrument in opera is in Cesti’s opera which performed in 1668. Until the early 17th century, bassoon was started to use as a strengthening element to the bass more. Because it had not different pitches and different tonal ranges. So, because of it’s bass sound sometimes 1 sometimes 2 of them were prefered to use for promoting basso continue line. According to my research, in 1611 Mikolai Zielenski started to used bassoon in his compositions and later some composers followed him. These composers were Biagio Marini, Gabriele Usper, Giovanni Battisti Riccio, Stefano Brnadi, Giovanni Picchi, Dario Castello, Mathias Spiegler, Giovanni Battista Buonamente and  Giovanni Battista Fontana. (Waterhouse, William. Bassoon “Repertory and use” Grove Music Online)
In 17th century, with the development of the instrument and achieving range of tone expression, composers increasingly began to include the instrument in their orchestral compositions. Especially, ın Lully’s operas “bassoons assumed a new function of bass to a wind trio consisting of two hautbois and bassoon, which are used as a contrasting group to the strings.” (Waterhouse, William. Bassoon “Repertory and use” Grove Music Online) The baraque bassoon instrument has more power to promote bass lines and for gaining good bass sound quality the usages of the bassoon in woodwinds is a best choices. In the process of time, composers understood that not only bassoon used as a basso continue but also used as a solo instrument. When we look at the 18th century, Bassoon repertory has many composition for solo bassoon, accompaniment and basso continue such as sonatas, concertos. On the other hand, it had important place in orchestra and some musical ensembles with it’s solo lines thanks to it’s developed tone quality and register.

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