The Pioneer violin countries & important pioneer composers
Generally the violin playing is risen from 4 basic countries (Then, it spreads to all around the world). These are France, Italy, Germany and Great Britain.
Undouptfully, France, and Italy (in terms of violin practise and technique, so on) dominates the world with their countriments. For instance, France according to the book, written by Robin Stowell, mainly focuses on methods and basic elements of violin playing. Joseph Barnabe Saint-Sevin, Michel Correte, Jean Baptiste Cartier are foremost musicians in terms of violin playing –Jean Baptiste particularly incorporates the numerous compositions into his L’art, which was the dedication of the new ‘Conservatoire de Musique’ in Paris. “ The third and most valuable part of this method comprises an anthology of some 140 pieces by member of the French , German and Italian violin schools of the 17th and 18th centuries” (Stowell)
Besides, the Methode of Rode comprises and contains the basic rules of how to hold violin and bow.
On the other hand, Italy is probably the founder of violin technique quality ad basic playing issues related to violin. In addition, citizens or parts of Italian ecole, intented to enrich the quality of violin during the late 18th to 19th centuries.
Basically, Francesco Geminiani, had a remarkable influence on the development of violin technique through his teaching, works and performances, according to Robin Stowell. Interestingly, the influence was felt largely in England, Ireland and in countries other than his native Italy. Because of that, it is evaluated elsewhere. (Stowell)
However, nobody under-estimate the technical virtuosity and contributions to violin playing of Paganini in terms of technical variety. In the Musical Times, the author describes Paganini as third Milestone of violin playing which is consisted of Corelli and Tartini. (Joachim) We can admit this, at the time of Paganini’s birth, violinists were already busying with technical problem, and practically every possible device in violin technique.
He studies for 12 and 15 hour per day and his studies begin with independence. “The more he steeped himself in the maze of technical problems, the more clearly he realised the possibilities of his instrument.” (Joachim)
German ecole for violin playing is firstly encountered by the father of Mozart, Leopold. Leopold Mozart’s book Versuch had 4 editions, which appeared before 1800 and generally was consisted of technical principles. However, Leopold Mozart’s 4 Edition of German violin treatise were outdated… Some revisions which reflect contemporary technical developments.
Spohr’s Violinschule is ratherconservative in content… “He objected to many of the effects employed by Paganini and other virtuosi, notably thrown bowings, artificial harmonics and suchlike preferring to cultivate a more ‘classical’ on-the-string bowing technique and singing tone.” (Stowell)
Actually, there are few sources are written for British ecole. Most of the composers and violin players were usually transeferred from foreign countries such as Italy and France. Geminiani is the typical example in order to explain this fact. In Robin Stowell’s Violin Technique and Perfomance Practice; it is defined as “Violin playing in Britain during the period was dominated by foreign musicians, of whom Geminiani was by far the most important, spreading the technique and style of his master, Corelli, through his compositions, teaching, performance and, above all…” (Stowell)
- 1. Stowell Robin, ‘Violin Technique and Perfomance Practice in Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries’, Cambridge musical Texts&Monographs. Cambridge University Press, 1985. pp. 5-9
- 2. Joachim, Henry the Musical Times, Three Milestones in the History of Violin Playing III. Paganini (Concluded), Musical Times Publications Ltd. 25/09/2012. Print. pp.1079-1082 www.jstor.org/stable/919427