Ferdinand David – Concerto for Trombone and Orchestra (es moll)
Ferdinand David (1810-1873) is a very important composer and he was also very important violin player at his period. Some other composers were impressed by F. David. He worked with Spohr (composer) and after that he became a violin teacher at Leipzig Conservatory. In 1835, Mendelssohn appoint him to Gewandhaus Orchestra as concertmaster. After Mendelssohn’s death, David continued his work as this orchestra’s composer and director. Besides, Mendelssohn dedicated his es moll violin concerto and some Mendelssohn’s and Schumann’s pieces dedicated David or were given him for analyse.
F. David’s es moll concerto for trombone and orchestra is a very important classical piece for this instrument. This piece comprises three movements.
This concerto’s introduction is magnificent and brilliance. First movement is “allegro maestoso”. At the beginning of concerto, woodwind instruments play like Mendelssohn’s chorales. After other instruments join, piece gets more rapturous. When trombone starts to play, orchestra gets dim because of trombone’s forte.
First theme is really important at this piece because the rhythmical tension must evoke by playing truth. Tongue must emphasize at semi-quaver and triplet must goes at the end of the note. This rhythmical theme is frequently seen at piece’s all movements. At “Funeral March” movement, this rhythm gets twofold. At the beginning of the piece’s theme occurs at sixtieth measure but in g major. At eighty-third measure, performer can indicate how trombone is a lyrical instrument. This passage can be thought as cantilena (song) and at this passage, it is really important to play soft and assume control. This passage continues to cadence with developing. This movement connects with a cadence to other movement which is funeral march (andante).
Second movement’s tonality is concerto’s relative minor. This movement is very calm and dark. Performer has to feel the darkness of funeral. At the middle of the movement, there are some little motions but it ends again in calm.
Third movement is “allegro maestoso” and this movement starts first movement’s main theme. The lyrical passage which is also in first movement appears again but this time it is in es moll which is the main tone. First movement and third movements are like same and the concerto finishes with again magnificent.