Say Ahmet, Müzik Tarihi, Müzik Ansiklopedisi Yayınları, 1997

Guinon David M., The Trombone (Its history and music), Overseas Publishers Association, 1988

In the performing part;

Vernon Charles G., The Singing Trombone, Atlanta Brass Society Press, 1983

Lewis Michael, Solo Trombone Performances at the Gewandhaus in the Eighteenth Century, Journal of the International Trombone Association, 1992

Addition to that, I will talk with;

Professor Armin Bachmann

Bryce Pawlowski  ( trombone player from Niedersächsischen Staatstheater)


R. Wagner – Walküre (trombone solo) (XII)

Richard Wagner – Walküre

In this opera, trombone solos symbolizes that horses gallop. This solo seems really easy for musicians but in all orchestra exams, walküre’s solo is the first and most important solo that wanted. While musicians play that solo, they must be careful at tempo, articulation and accents. Before play the solo, it must be listened for true rhythm. For this solo, at the beginning of the studying this opera certainly must be practicing with metronome in half beat and divided in eighth note. Thus, sixteenth notes and accents will be easy for the musician.

There are some general mistakes while musicians play this solo;

  1. Auftakt eighth notes always playing early
  2. Accents are played in wrong places
  3. Sixteenth notes are inaudible because of insufficient articulation

For these mistakes there are some general practicing examples;

  1. Without playing sixteenth notes for prepare true accent and fluency
  2. Playing all notes like directly with eighth notes for opera’s fluency
  3. Without playing the first eighth note

As I said at the beginning, this solo makes feel that horses running. For that reason, it must be magnificent and gorgeous and music must always play onward.

wahner 1


wahber 2

Mustafa Kemal Saydam’s bassoonquartet

Mustafa Kemal Saydam’s bassoonquartet

Performers: Ozan Evruk, Elif Fulya Bilgin, Serkan Alagök, Mustafa Kemal Saydam

In the video from 4:00 Saydam’s quartet begins. Mustafa Kemal Saydam is bassoon player in Eskişehir city hall orchestra. In his quartet he uses bassoon’s specialities very well. At the 5:30 he uses unison bassoon with contrabassoon and it sounds a lot like stravinsky. From 6:00 we can see Mahler effect plain texture and bright solo on top of it.

In my opinion performance is good but tone colors are very different. That difference causes balance problems. Contrabassoon is a supplemantary intrument for bassoon quartets. The broad bass sound gains richer sound. 10.28 chromatic scale gives Korsakov affect to the piece. This pieceis written in symphonic perception. In some parts every bassoon refers to an other instrument such as; high note trills are sounding like flutes or middle register slow and dark solo sounds as English Horn.

Arthur Weisberg: Bach Partita – Bourrée Anglaise

Bach Partita in A Minor Bourrée Anglaise

I prefer this piece because in 2013 there will be a bassoon competition in Bursa – Turkey and this partita is obligatory piece. This partita was orginally written for flute. Johann Sebastian Bach often used the bourrée in his suites as one of the optional dance movements that come after thesarabande but before the gigue. The bourrée is also a ballet step consisting of a rapid movement of the feet. This A minor bourrée shows the quick feet moves feeling very clearly.
Artur Weisberg ‘s partita recording is the most appropriate recording I can find. I like the impetient feeling with the quick 16th notes. What I like the most is the tone of Weisberg it is mature and grainy and also his staccatos are exactly what I am trying to achieve. Short but not dry. Like small rubber ball bouncing on the marble surface. Articulations on the cadence are interpreted very well and professionally


Second Viennese School XII – Anton Webern’s “Wie Bin Ich Froh!”

“Wie Bin Ich Froh” is the first of three lieds in Opus 25. Webern has written this album in 1934-35 based on poems by Hildegard Jone.

“What great delight!
Once more now all the green’s unfurled and shines so bright!
And still the world is overgrown with flowers!
Once more I in creation’s portal live my hours,
And yet am mortal.”

Webern has used  dodecaphonic scale and series of rhythmic figuration which are repeated throughout this short piece. In voice part rhythms are simple, consisted of quarter and eighth notes, mixed with eighth-note triolets. In piano part sixteenth-note triolets gives accompaniment part a commenting role and makes the music more active. Big leaps both in voice and piano part drag the attention of listener.

The piece’s tempo is slow (quarter note equals 60). In the first two bars, piano accompaniment introduces all the rhythmic patterns which are going to be used later in the piece. Moreover, all degrees of dodecaphonic scale are used in these two bars.

“What great delight!”

In the phrase in order to depict the word ‘delight’ Webern has used an ascending leap from e to D# and then F#. The phrase’s dynamic is forte, showing the bright sense of words, followed by decrescendo, ending with piano and ritardando. Accompaniment follows the sam figuration and dynamic strategy.

“Once more now all the green’s unfurled and shines so bright”

Tempo is back to its original mode. The phrase is longer and more lively and dynamic changes help it. “Once more now” is an descending motion, because Webern wants to emphasize on the contrast of the words ‘all the green’s’ by descending motion and dotted quarter-note as the longest division for ‘green’. The phrase’s climax happens on ‘unfurled’, with major seventh ascending leap from A to G#. G# is the highest note of this phrase, emphasized by forte, depicting the sense of lengthening. Stopped by a short rest (eighth-note), the phrase continues in a gentler manner, with decrescendo, piano and general descending motion. The only ascending leap is placed on the word ‘shines’ reflecting brightness.

“And still the world is overgrown with flowers!”

In order to depict the sense of steadiness, Webern uses the same note (G) for ‘and still’. In order to deliver the feeling of earth he has used relatively low register (B,G#) and successfully highlighted ‘is overgrown’ with high (A); and as it is followed with ‘by flowers’ Webern uses successive leaps in contrary motions.

“Once more I in creation’s portal live my hours’

Webern considers a long duration for ‘in creation’s portal’ consisting of 3.5 beats. Also, in terms of intervals, it occupies a relatively large span (minor 9th). Dynamic is forte throughout the phrase, with a small decrescendo at the end. ‘Live my hours’ is marked with ritardando, emphasizing length and regularity of lifetime.

“and yet am mortal”

The last phrase, a short one, with slower tempo (quarter-note equals 42), piano dynamic with decrescendo at the end reflects mortality and Webern beautifully ends the piece with an ascending leap depicting the rising of human’s soul leaving body at the time of death.

What your reed needs? How is it sounds

What your reed needs?

How is it sounds?

These descriptions does not mean that you have to apply these recommends on every reed to each point. The thicknesses and boldnesses ratios are described depending on the average so it can be suitable.

Hard Reed:

If the part 15 is too thick (when you compare with the back edges it makes reed hard, especially in the low register. Than you should scratch here but be careful if you scratch too much from the point 15 you will loosen the reed. If you think your reed is naturally too thick than scratch all over the reed (8) but DO NOT touch the 4th era this is the hearth of the reed.

Soft Reed:

If your reed sounds too soft or sounds like “zurna” it mostly means you scratched from the part 4 too much. To save the reed try to squeeze the second ring (11) than a little bit first ring(10) from the sides (hold the reed parallel to floor). If it is not enough you can cut off the point 5 for 0,5-1,00 mm to make the heart (4) become closer to the rings.

If it is hard to play in low register:
If the reed does not reacts easily in the low register scratch the back era of the reed (3) but mostly the sides of the back (1) and it will make the reed freer. The middle should be thicker than the sides and it should be seen like a mountain when you look from one side. If that is not enough you can scratch a little bit from the corners (8) but be careful it will make high register easier also. If the reed is already easy to play in high registers scratching more from that corners will make you loose the strenght of the reed.

If it is hard to play in high register:
First look at the opening of the reed it it is too open than it makes the high notes harder to play so tighten the first ring (11). Than if the reed still sounds heavy in high notes try to scratch 2nd era but be careful too mach scratching from the corners (2) makes harder to play staccato.




Bassoon players spend lots of time with reed making and especially reed scratching. But the results are not promisingly good all the time, till the performer gets used to make reeds. Performers want to spend min. time to gain good sounding results. To get good results player should know what will differ when which place of the reed was scratched. Unfortunately only knowledge is not enough players also have to gain experience by making mistakes.

In order to achieve the reeds in the way this fits to player, first thing that you should identify the reed.

You take measures to correct all of the problems in the order that they reveal themselves.


The first thing that reed needs before scratching is identifying the reed. It is important because if you know what is the problem with the reed than you will know what to do to which part. It is not good to stigmatizing the reed as “it is waste” because the worst or impossible cane can be turned out with a beautiful results. When you blow the reed you will feel that it is not OK. That good but important thing is to diagnose what is the problem. There can be more than one problem at the same reed and sometimes reed can be a just a mass.  If there is only one problem it will be easier to handle. In example the reed may have problem with de “E” note in the second octave you should scratch the part which effects tonguing. But if there are more problems than one you should be more systematic in order to solve problems step by step. When you blow the reed you will understand in a second if the reed has dark sound, hard to blow, has too bright sound, hard to play high register or low register, too metallic sound etc. To reveal the problems truly you should not be inpatient. Scratch very few and play with it and do it over and over.